Shuvalova O.A.
Science Researcher
CSPE "The Local History museum of Temirtau City"


It was necessary to transform an economically backward agricultural country into a powerful industrial power in the course of the industrialization policy approved at the XIV Congress of the All-Russian Communist Party of the Future on December 18, 1925. Electricity was necessary to industrialize the entire country. A plan was outlined, which provided for the electrification of all the republics that were part of the Soviet Union.

Particular attention was paid to the underdeveloped eastern regions of the country, including Kazakhstan. Here, in the Kazakh steppe, on the place of modern Temirtau city, there was a Samarkand village (founded in mid-1905, from the indigenous population and settlers who arrived here as part of the Stolypin reform), and there was no industry. The exceptions are several small coal mines in Karaganda, a mine in Uspensky village and a small copper smelter in Spassk village. And the course taken was supposed to change the current situation.

The famous Kazakh scientist geologist K.I. Satpayev, back in 1927-1928, analyzed the possibilities of Zhezkazgan, Karsakpay, Atbasar, Spassk, the Karaganda coal basin, the Karatau polymetallic ore deposit and published important scientific works. He raised the issue of developing ferrous metallurgy in the Karaganda region and approached the Central authorities with a proposal for an in-depth geological study of the region based on a study of the Atasu deposit of ferromanganese ores. The center responded.

On the territory of the Akmola, Pavlodar and Semipalatinsk regions, survey work began to be carried out by geological teams from the Leningrad сity, headed by I.S. Yagovkin, M.P. Rusakov, N.G. Kasmin. Experts discovered copper and polymetallic deposits. The results of survey work confirmed the proposals of K.I. Satpayev.

The Council of Labor and Defense adopted a resolution “On the prospects for the development of the non-ferrous metal industry” on August 2, 1929 based on the data received. Kazakhstan was recognized as the main region for the extraction of non-ferrous metals. As part of this resolution, geologist K. Satpayev put forward a proposal to create a copper smelter on the banks of the Nura River, in the area Samarkand village.

At the same time, builders and the government are faced with the task of establishing drinking and technical water supply in the region. To resolve these issues, the management of the Kazmedstroy organization turned to the scientists of the State Hydrological Institute in Leningrad city for help.

In 1930, the Hydrological Institute formed an expedition to find sources of water supply for all industrial facilities of the Kazmedstroy trust. The total volume of work was about 100 sq. km of periodic survey, over 1000 km of leveling, about 500 chemical analyses. The expedition was not large, but the specialists were of the highest category - expedition leader N.N. Danilov, chief engineer Pyotr Shergin. Responsible for geological research was V.N. Voznesensky, for meteorological research - N.P. Novitsky, for topographical research - N. Kornakov. Drilling operations were managed by V.A. Kurdyukov.

In the second half of 1931, surveys were carried out in the Nura River basin, in the area of ​​ Samarkand village. It was here that the terrain was favorable for the construction of a dam, and, accordingly, for industrial facilities.

However, with the clarification of data on the volume of copper ore deposits in the Kounrad area, a decision was made to build a copper smelter in close proximity to the ore mining site on Balkhash lake. But the idea of ​​building a dam on Nura River was relevant, since the developing Karaganda coal basin lacked electricity and water. The first survey party of the expeditionary sector carried out work on installing water measuring posts on the Nura River, analyzing water in all 33 wells of the Samarkand village and in different places of the Nura River from May to August 1930. During these works, an area was identified where drilling work was carried out along the axis of the intended dam.

Construction of a water pipeline for Karaganda began in 1932. Water came to Karaganda through the Nura water pipeline on July 19, 1933, and  work on the construction of a water pipeline, about 30 km long, was completed by January 1, 1934.

1933 was a year of extensive research to clarify the location of the power plant and reservoir dam. A year later, the Moscow Branch of the Hydroproject Institute completed the development of working drawings.

Workers were neсessary for construction, and in connection with this, the reception of workers was organized (attracting mainly workers through conscription and public construction projects). After the completion of the construction of the DneproHydro Electro Station, by order of Glavenergo organization, 50 construction workers were sent to the construction of Karaganda Hydro Electro Station in the summer of 1934.

By that time, on the instructions of Glavenergo, the Moscow branch of the Teploelektroproekt Institute had drawn up a technical design for a power plant with a capacity of 100 MW and approved it on April 21, 1934. The cost of construction amounted to 65-70 million rubles. The priority work included: the construction of a railway line from Solonichka to the construction site, so that the necessary construction materials and equipment could be delivered. The second important construction project was a temporary power plant, since the previously installed locomotive did not provide the minimum requirements even for lighting the construction site.

Construction work progressed slowly, the main equipment of the future KarHES was not allocated, and in January 1939 Glavokenergo decided, due to the absence of other large consumers of electricity, except for the Karaganda coal basin, to limit the power of KarHES to 24 MW with the installation of two turbo generators of 12 MW each. And this version of the technical project was approved on April 26, 1939 according to Protocol No. 17.

The hydroelectric complex remained one of the main construction sites, where work on the construction of the dam was carried out in the summer, and in the winter, rocks were excavated in the pit for the spillway funnel and the bottom drainage channel. About two thousand people worked daily. In addition to the engineering and technical staff and the local population, prisoners from the Karaganda forced labor camp were involved in the construction of the dam. In 1938, the main construction work at the Hydroelectric Complex was completed. And in the spring of 1939, the Nura Riverbed was completely blocked. The reservoir has begun to fill. The complete formation of the reservoir mirror lasted 22 years and ended in the spring of 1961.

The energy supply situation in the Karaganda region changed significantly, potential consumers of electricity appeared, such as the future aluminum plant and the neighbor of KarHES - the Synthetic Rubber Plant in the early 1940s. The question of increasing the capacity of the state district power station again arose.

Despite the fact that the Great Patriotic War began, construction of the station did not stop. Everyone who was not called to the front worked in construction. Soon a turbine of the AT-25 type arrived from the Kyiv Thermal Power Plant, which immediately went into installation. The 130 experienced workers of the Shterovskaya State District Power Plant who arrived for the evacuation provided great assistance. Work was carried out simultaneously in all directions and in all areas. People worked selflessly, despite terrible weather conditions and everyday difficulties. A group of engineers from Leningrad сity provided great assistance in the successful construction and installation of the turbine: Novoselov S.A., Putintsev V.A., Dikushin V.I.

1942 was a difficult year. Boiler-unit with a capacity of 120/150 tons of steam per hour and a turbo generator with a capacity of 25 thousand kW. were put into operation on October 18. So Karaganda State District Power Plant - 1 entered into commercial operation, and the current flowed through the power line with a voltage of 110 kW. to Karaganda.

The installed and operating capacity of the power plant in 1942-45 was 25,000 kW, and the total power of the entire power system of the Karaganda region was 45,500 kW.

In 1945, the installation of a new powerful boiler and turbo generator No. 2 began. The second stage of the station was put into operation on May 26, 1946. With the commissioning of boiler No. 11 and turbo generator No. 9, the expansion of the station’s main capacities was completed by 1956.

For many years, KarHES-1 was the leading station of the Karaganda energy system and carried the main burden of supplying electricity to the coal basin.

  The introduction of powerful units for that period, along with the provision of electricity to the industry of Karaganda city, made it possible to operate at full capacity at the Karaganda Synthetic Rubber Plant and the Kazakh Metallurgical Plant, built in the Temirtau city. The products of these enterprises were supplied to all union republics. It was these enterprises that became the starting point for the formation of the future industrial city.

The breath of industrialization reached the Kazakh steppe with the construction of industrial facilities, which became the connecting link of several generations of Temirtau city’s residents.


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